# Eight Workable Strategies for Creating Lean Government

Lean Government. Even to the seasoned Lean practitioner, this idea sounds far-fetched. Governments are traditionally seen as the epitome of bureaucracy and red tape, incomprehensible forms and endless queues. But there are workable Lean strategies for governments seeking to reduce waste. Eight are outlined here.

# Making Sense of Chi-Squared Test – Finding Differences in Proportions

Every blood donor of a large blood bank has to go through five process steps. These steps are Registration, Screening, HB Test, Donation and Refreshment. At the end of the process, that often takes around an hour, feedback forms are available for the donors. In one week, 210 donors have returned these forms with their satisfaction score for each process step.

# Making Sense of Test For Equal Variances

Three teams compete in our CHL business simulation. After completing Day One, it looks like the teams show a very different performance. Although the means look very similar, the variation is strikingly different. To test this assumption of different variation among the teams, the Test for Equal Variances is deployed.

# Making Sense of the Two-Proportions Test

Consider a production process that produced 10,000 widgets in January and experienced a total of 112 rejected widgets after a quality control inspection (i.e., failure rate = 1.12%). A Six Sigma project was deployed to fix this problem and by March the improvement plan was in place. In April, the process produced 8,000 widgets and experienced a total of 63 rejects (failure rate = 0.79%). Did the process indeed improve?

# Making Sense of Linear Regression

Linear regression is one of the most commonly used hypothesis tests in Lean Six Sigma work. Linear regression offers the statistics for testing whether two or more sets of continuous data correlate with each other, i.e. whether one drives another one.

# Making Sense of ANOVA – Find Differences in Population Means

Three methods for dissolving a powder in water show a different time (in minutes) it takes until the powder dissolves fully. The results are summarised in Figure 1.

There is an assumption that the population means of the three methods Method 1, Method 2 and Method 3 are not all equal (i.e., at least one method is different from the others). How can we test this?

# Making Sense of Binary Logistic Regression

In some situations, Six Sigma practitioners find a Y that is discrete and Xs that are continuous. How can a regression equation be developed in these cases? Black Belt training indicated that the correct technique is something called logistic regression or binary regression. But this tool is often not well understood.

# Making Sense of the Two-Sample T-Test

The two-sample t-test is one of the most commonly used hypothesis tests in Data Analytics or Lean Six Sigma work. The two-sample t-test offers the statistics for comparing average of two groups and identify whether the groups are really significantly different or if the difference is due instead to random chance.

# Making Sense of Attribute Gage R&R Calculations

Measurement error is unavoidable. There will always be some measurement variation that is due to the measurement system itself.

Most problematic measurement system issues come from measuring attribute data in terms that rely on human judgment such as good/bad, pass/fail, etc. This is because it is very difficult for all testers to apply the same operational definition of what is “good” and what is “bad.”

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